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Thursday, September 3, 2015

Carl Jung and I Ching’s “Youthful Folly.”




To Michael Fordham

Dear Fordham, 3 January 1957

I am glad to hear that your two book are ready and going to press.

My congratulations!

I will write the introduction as soon as possible.

For the time being I am nailed down to a revision of a paper I wrote in spring 1956, which should appear this month but as soon as I have finished this work I shall try to fulfil my promise.

In view of my old age I don't trust my powers any more.

I easily get tired and my creative ability, I am afraid, has become very faint indeed.

By the way, I have just read your paper on " Synchronicity."

I must say, this is the most intelligent thing that has been said hitherto about this remote subject.

I have enjoyed it very much.

The experience you had with the I Ching, calling you to order when trying to tempt it a second time also happened to me in 1920 when I first experimented with it.

It also gave me a wholesome shock and at the same time it opened wholly new vistas to me.

I well understand that you prefer to emphasize the archetypal implication in synchronicity.

This aspect is certainly most important from the psychological angle, but I must say that I am equally interested, at times even more so, in the metaphysical aspect of the phenomena, and in the question: how does it come that even inanimate objects are capable of behaving as if they were acquainted with my thoughts?

This is, as the above formulation shows, a thoroughly paranoid speculation which one had better not ventilate in public, but I cannot deny my fervent interest in this aspect of the problem.

My best wishes for the New Year,

Cordially yours,

C.G. Jung

Note: As he recounts in New Developments (p.49) , F. had consulted the I Ching
for clarification on a certain problem, and after getting an answer immediately consulted it again.

He obtained Hexagram 4, "Youthful Folly," where The Judgment says:

" the young fool seeks me.
At the first oracle I inform him .
If he asks two or three times, it is importunity.
If he importunes, I give him no information." ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 343-344

Carl Jung: I have finished painting the ceiling in Bollingen...





Dear Aniela, 18 March 1957

Here too the weather has been indescribably beautiful, and this has most effectively prevented me from writing letters, but instead I have finished painting the ceiling in Bollingen and done more work on my inscription and-last but not least-rebricked the rivulets to prevent seepage and cooked some good meals and found and bought an excellent wine.

All this has rested me and cured me of various vexations.

But I won't speak of that.

Thank heavens I have no idea how great is the disorder or order of my correspondence.

My memory has the most astonishing holes in it, so that I often catch myself forgetting not only what I have done but more especially what I have not done.

It is therefore with a sigh of relief that I see from your letter that, what with the good weather and the necessary rest, you are gradually recuperating and hold out prospects of returning to Kusnacht.

I have just got back from the timelessness of Bollingen and found your letter and the very interesting article by Nowacki!

It is of great importance.

But I must give it a thorough thinking over.

I must stop now and say goodbye till Friday (hopefully).

Go on enjoying the spring in Tessin: here the weather has changed.

With cordial greetings and best wishes,

Yours, C.G. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 351.

Carl Jung & Sigmund Freud. Anthology.




His [Freud’s] irresponsible manner of observation is demonstrated by the fact, for instance, that not one of his cases of "traumatic" hysteria was verified. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 346-348

When I analysed Freud a bit further in 1909 on account of a neurotic symptom, I discovered traces which led me to infer a marked injury to his feeling life. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 346-348

Freud, when one got to know him better, was distinguished by a markedly differentiated feeling function. His "sense of values" showed itself in his love of precious stones, jade, malachite, etc. He also had considerable intuition. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 346-348
People always assume anyway that my critical set-to with Freud was the result of a merely personal animosity on my part. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 349-350

It should also be noted that my characterization of Adler and Freud as, respectively, introverted and extraverted does not refer to them personally but only to their outward demeanour. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 349-350

Psychoanalysis is in essence a cure through love. ~Sigmund Freud - letter to Carl Jung (1906)

One day, in retrospect, the years of struggle will strike you as the most beautiful. ~Sigmund Freud Letter to Carl Jung, September 19, 1907.

So long as the self is unconscious, it corresponds to Freud's superego and is a source of perpetual moral conflict. If, however, it is withdrawn from projection and is no longer identical with public opinion, then one is truly one's own yea and nay. The self then functions as a union of opposites and thus constitutes the most immediate experience of the Divine that it is psychologically possible to imagine. ~Carl Jung; "Transformation Symbolism in the Mass"; CW 11, par. 396.

Freud and Josef Breuer recognized that neurotic symptoms… are in fact symbolically meaningful. They are one way in which the unconscious mind expresses itself. ~Carl Jung; Man and His Symbols; Page 9.

I . . . have the feeling that this is a time full of marvels, and, if the auguries do not deceive us, it may very well be that . . . we are on the threshold of something really sensational, which I scarcely know how to describe except with the Gnostic concept of [Sophia], an Alexandrian term particularly suited to the reincarnation of ancient wisdom in the shape of ΨA. ~Carl Jung, The Freud/Jung Letters, Page 439

After the disgraceful defection of Adler, a gifted thinker but a malicious paranoiac, I am now in trouble with our friend, Jung, who apparently has not outgrown his own neurosis.” ~Sigmund Freud to James Jackson Putnam, 20Aug1912.

The reason I write to you about family matters is that no visitor since Jung has so much impressed the children and done me so much good ~Sigmund Freud to Oskar Pfister, Dec. 7, 1909.

It is a pity that you did not meet or speak to Jung. You could have told him from me that he is at perfect liberty to develop views divergent from mine, and that I ask him to do so without a bad conscience. ~Sigmund Freud to Oskar Pfister, April 7, 1912.

I hope you agree with the Nuremberg decisions and will stand loyally by our Jung. I want him to acquire an authority that will later qualify him for leadership of the whole movement. ~Sigmund Freud to Oskar Pfister, Feb. 5, 1910.

If Jung were to obtain the professorship without the administrative duties, it would of course be a huge gain for us, but I think that he himself regards it as improbable. ~Sigmund Freud to Oskar Pfister, Feb 5, 1912.

When Freud coined the phrase that the ego was "the true seat of anxiety," he was giving voice to a very true and profound intuition. ~Carl Jung, Psychological, CW 11, Page 849.

The reason for evil in the world is that people are not able to tell their stories. ~Carl Jung; Freud Letters; Vol. 2.

Freud found out that neurotics must be regarded as individuals. He also realized that as an explorer he had to be able to be subjective, for you can only induce the patient to declare his standpoint when you can tell him what you yourself think of him. ~ Carl Jung, Modern Psychology, Vol. 1, Page 66.

Adler looks forward and Freud looks back. ~Carl Jung, Modern Psychology, Vol. 2, Page 150.

Freud and Adler believe that the unconscious consists only of contents which have once been conscious; for me it is a thing in itself, it is my belief and in fact I know that dreams are exactly what they say. ~Carl Jung, Modern Psychology, Vol. 2, Page 162.

Since your visit I have been tormented by the idea that your relation with my husband is not altogether as it should be, and since it definitely ought not to be like this I want to try to do whatever is in my power. ~Emma Jung to S. Freud, Freud/Jung Letters Pages 452-3.
You were really annoyed by my letter, weren't you? I was too, and now I am cured of my megalomania and am wondering why the devil the unconscious had to make you, of all people, the victim of this madness. ~Emma Jung to S. Freud, Freud/Jung Letters Pages 455-7.

Incidentally, America no longer has the same attraction for him [Carl] as before, and this has taken a stone from my heart. ~Emma Jung to S. Freud, Freud/Jung Letters, Page 303.

“No one provokes me with impunity." The ancients knew how inexorable a god Eros is. ~Cited by Carl Jung in Freud/Jung Letters, Page 19.

Gross and Spielrein are bitter experiences. To none of my patients have I extended so much friendship and from none have I reaped so much sorrow. ~Jung to Freud, Freud/Jung Letters pp. 228-229.

Adler's letter is stupid chatter and can safely be ignored. We aren't children here. If Adler ever says anything sensible or worth listening to I shall take note of it, even though I don't think much of him as a person. ~Carl Jung,Freud/Jung Letters, Page 532.

This time the feminine element will have conspicuous representatives from Zurich: Sister Meltzer, Hinkle Eastwick (an American charmer), Frl. Dr. Spielrein (!), then a new discovery of mine, Frl. Antonia Wolff, a remarkable intellect with an excellent feeling for religion and philosophy, and last but not least my wife. ~Carl Jung, Freud/Jung Letters, pp. 438-41.

It seemed to me that my spookerys struck you as altogether too stupid and perhaps unpleasant because of the Fliess analogy. (Insanity!) ~Carl Jung to Freud, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 9-11.

If there is a "psych-analysis" there must also be a "psychosynthesis" which creates future events according to the same laws. ~Carl Jung to Freud, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 9-11.

That last evening with you has, most happily, freed me inwardly from the oppressive sense of your paternal authority. ~Carl Jung to Freud, Letters Vol. 1, Pages 9-11.

You will be accused of mysticism, but the reputation you won with the Dementia will hold up for quite some time against that. ~Sigmund Freud to Carl Jung Letter May 1911

And then I wrote a book about psychology of dementia praecox, as it was called then— now it is schizophrenia—and I sent the book to Freud, writing to him about my association experiments and how they confirmed his theory thus far. That is how my friendship with Freud began. ~Carl Jung, Conversations Evans, Page 11.

Freud was a successful man; he was on top, and so he was interested only in pleasure and the pleasure principle, and Adler was interested in the power drive. ~Carl Jung, Conversations [Evans], Page 12.

I think, you see, that when Freud says that one of the first interests, and the foremost interest is to feed, he doesn't need such a peculiar kind of terminology like "oral zone." Of course, they put it into the mouth— ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 13.

That is the first archetype [Oedipus] Freud discovered; the first and the only one. ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 13.

No one is hampered by one's self. And that's what he [Freud] never could admit to me. ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 14.

Now, Freud refers very little to Pierre Janet, but I studied with him while in Paris and he very much helped form my ideas. ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 15.

Now you see, the subjective factor, which is very characteristic, was understood by Freud as a sort of pathological auto-egotism. Now this is a mistake. The psyche has two conditions, two important conditions. The one is environmental influence and the other is the given fact of the psyche as it is born. ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 22.

And there I was, in between the two. I could see the justification of Freud's view, and also could see the same for Adler; and I knew that there were plenty of other ways in which things could be envisaged. ~Carl Jung, Evans Conversations, Page 22.

It is a risky business for an egg to be cleverer than the hen. Still, what is in the egg must find the courage to creep out. ~Carl Jung, Letter to Sigmund Freud (1911)

One repays a teacher badly if one remains only a pupil. ~Carl Jung, Letter to Sigmund Freud (quoting Zarathustra) (1912)

What Freud calls 'the dream façade' is the dream's obscurity, and this is really only a projection of our own lack of understanding. We say that the dream has a false front only because we fail to see into it. ~Carl Jung, CW 16, Par. 319.

Freud's letters in my possession are not particularly important. . ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 40-41.

My personal recollections on the other hand are a chapter for itself. They have very much to do with Freud's psychology, but since there is no witness except myself I prefer to refrain from unsubstantiated tales about the dead. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 40-41.

Now, this derogatory way of judging Amenophis IV got my goat and I expressed myself pretty strongly. That was the immediate cause of Freud's accident. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 133.

Nobody ever asks me how things really were; one only gives a one-sided and twisted representation of my relation to him [Freud]. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Page 133.

Did it never occur to you that in my analysis we talked very little of "resistance," while in the Freudian analysis it is the term that most frequently occurs? ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 148-150.

I shall always remember the time when Freud disturbed the peaceful slumber of the medical and philosophical faculties by his shocking discoveries, which are now taken into serious consideration. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 184-187.

The healing function is not necessarily a characteristic of individuation; it is a thing in itself. It also doesn't work exclusively through transference; that is a Freudian prejudice. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 227-229

The way in which the scientific world reacts reminds me strongly of those remote times when I stood up all alone for Freud against a world blindfolded by prejudice, and ever since I have been the subject of calumny, irritation, and contempt, although I have harvested a good deal of appreciation paradoxically enough just from universities (among them Oxford and Harvard). ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 230-232.

No matter whether it was a Jewish or a Christian or any other belief, he [Freud] was unable to admit anything beyond the horizon of his scientific materialism. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 295-296.

Naturally he [Freud] assumed that my more positive ideas about religion and its importance for our psychological life were nothing but an outcrop of my unrealized resistances against my clergyman father, whereas in reality my problem and my personal prejudice were never centred in my father but most emphatically in my mother. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 295-296.

I have always wondered how it comes that just the theologians are often so particularly fond of the Freudian theory, as one could hardly find anything more hostile to their alleged beliefs. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 295-296.

The problem nearest to Freud's heart was unquestionably the psychology of the unconscious, but none of his immediate followers has done anything about it.I happen to be the only one of his heirs that has carried out some further research along the lines he intuitively foresaw. ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 306-310.



Carl Jung: Matter and psyche are thus the terminal points of a polarity.




To Werner Nowacki

Dear Professor Nowacki, 22 March 1957

I don't want to miss the chance of thanking you for your thoughtfulness in sending me your interesting article.

Your ideas go back, in modern form, to the familiar world of Plato's Timaeus, which was a sacrosanct authority for medieval science-and rightly so!

Our modern attempts at a unitary view, to which your article makes very important contributions, do indeed lead to the question of the cosmic demiurge and the psychic aspect of whole numbers.

From the fact that matter has a mainly quantitative aspect and at the same time a qualitative one, even though this appears to be secondary, you draw the weighty conclusion, which I heartily applaud, that, besides its obviously qualitative nature, the psyche has an as yet hidden quantitative aspect.

Matter and psyche are thus the terminal points of a polarity.

The still largely unexplored area between them forms the terra incognita of future research.

Here tremendous problems open out which you have approached from the physical side.

It seems to me that for the time being I have exhausted my psychological ammunition.

I have got stuck, on the one hand, in the a causality (or "synchronicity") of certain phenomena of unconscious provenance and, on the other hand, in the qualitative statements of numbers, for here I set foot on territories where I cannot advance without the help and understanding of the other disciplines.

In this respect your article is uncommonly valuable and stimulating.

I am particularly grateful to you for your appreciation of the transcendent "arranger."

Yours sincerely,

C.G. Jung ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 351-352.

Dr. Jung on Freud and Adler




To Ernst Hanhart

Dear Colleague, 2 March 1957

Best thanks for your explanatory remarks.

With your permission, I will annotate your MS in places

I should be glad if you would treat my analysis of Freud's character with discretion.

I have communicated my views to you sub secreta medici.

Since my views spring from my intimate acquaintance with him, and in addition point to a rather delicate background for persons in the know, I would prefer discretion to prevail in this matter.

People always assume anyway that my critical set-to with Freud was the result of a merely personal animosity on my part.

Instead of using Freud and Adler as paradigms, you could use Nietzsche and Wagner as representing the Dionysian and Apollinian, or else Jordan's descriptions.

It should also be noted that my characterization of Adler and Freud as,
respectively, introverted and extraverted does not refer to them personally but only to their outward demeanour.

The question of the real personal type still remains open.

I had little personal knowledge of Adler and so can say little about his real personality.

Freud, on the other hand, I knew very well.

He was unquestionably a neurotic.

As I said before, I know from experience that in neurotic cases it is often extraordinarily difficult to make out the real type, because at first and for a long time afterwards you don't know what you are observing, the conscious or the unconscious behaviour.

Freud's thinking had a definitely extraverted character, i.e., pleasure and unpleasure in the object.

Adler's character, on the contrary, was introverted in so far as he gave paramount importance to the power of the ego.

As for your main question, the problem of small but decisive chance events, perhaps I may point out that I have not only never denied them but have even made them the subject of a special investigation (my essay in The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche which I brought out with W. Pauli).

Adler, by the way, once coined the nickname "iunctim"4 for these Phenomena.

As meaningful coincidences, they present us with the quite special problem of "acausal arrangements" -if I may risk such a paradox.

As regards the tendency to self-punishment it would, for the sake of scientific accuracy, have to be divested of its ego character.

Since it operates unconsciously, no participation by the ego can be proved.

It is rather that objective processes not chosen by the ego take place, which in view of the one-sidedness of the ego have a complementary or compensatory character.

The term "self-punishment" is therefore misleading on closer examination since it imputes to the ego an intention which in reality does not exist.

What does in fact exist seems to be an objective psychic background, the unconscious, which predates consciousness and exists independently alongside it.

With collegial regards,

Yours sincerely,

C.G. Jung ~Carl Jung, Letters Vol. II, Pages 349-350